Apologies for not posting anything recently. I have something in the works at BigThink and a few more in the pipeline but it has been hard finding the time to blog recently. I hope to be back to it in a couple of weeks.
In a recent debate between Gary Marcus and Yoshua Bengio about the future of Artificial Intelligence, the question came up of how much information the genome can encode. This relates to the idea of how much innate or prior “knowledge” human beings are really born with, versus what we learn through experience. This is a hot topic in AI these days as people debate how much prior knowledge needs to be pre-wired into AI systems, in order to get them to achieve something more akin to natural intelligence. Bengio (like Yann leCun) argues for putting as little prior knowledge into the system as we can get away with – mainly in the form of meta-learning rules, rather than specific details about specific things in the environment – such that the system that emerges through deep learning from the data supplied to it will be maximally capable of generalisation. (In his view, more detailed priors give a more specialised, but a more limited and possibly more biased machin
It seems an innocent enough question: why are males more frequently left-handed than females? But the answer is far from simple, and it reveals fundamental principles of how our psychological and behavioural traits are encoded in our genomes, how variability in those traits arise, and how development is channelled towards specific outcomes. It turns out that the explanation rests on an underlying difference between males and females that has far-reaching consequences for all kinds of traits, including neurodevelopmental disorders. Pixabay.com A recent tweet from Abdel Abdellaoui showed data on rates of left-handedness obtained from the UK Biobank, and asked two questions: why is left-handedness more common in males and why are rates of reported left-handedness increasing over time? I don’t think the answer to the second question is known but I presume it has to do with the declining practice of forcing left-handers to write right-handed. This once common practice reflects a lon
What if we’ve been thinking about the genetics of intelligence from completely the wrong angle? Intelligence (as indexed by IQ or the general intelligence factor “ g ”) is clearly highly heritable in humans – people who are more genetically similar are also more similar in this factor. (Genetic variance has been estimated as explaining ~75% of variance in g , depending on age and other factors). There must therefore be genetic variants in the population that affect intelligence – so far, so good. But the search for such variants has, at its heart, an implicit assumption: that these variants affect intelligence in a fairly specific way – that they will occur in genes “for intelligence”. An implication of that phrase is that mutations in those genes were positively selected for at some stage in humanity’s descent from our common ancestor with apes, on the basis of conferring increased intelligence . This seems a fairly reasonable leap to make – such genes must exist and,