Exciting findings in schizophrenia genetics – but what do they mean?
--> A paper published today represents a true landmark in psychiatric genetics. It reports results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia, involving 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. Assembling this sample required collaboration on a massive scale, with over 300 authors involved. This huge sample gives unprecedented statistical power to detect genetic variants that predispose to disease, even if their individual effects on risk are tiny. The study reports 108 regions of the genome where genetic differences affect risk of disease. This achievement is rightly being widely celebrated and reported, but what do these results really mean? GWAS look at sites in the genome where the particular base in the DNA sequence is variable – it might sometimes be an “A”, other times a “T”, for example. There are millions of such sites in the human genome (which comprises over 3 billion bases of sequence). Each such site represents a mutation that happened some